The Mingo Salamander, so called for having been tried in the fire and found vaunting.

Atk'

The Ax
1. Hutynt ne teyaknyatnt'. Ne' wai tyutkt utwatyanht's thynyn' ks ne' khu tyan't ks twayen'.
My cousin is a funny guy. He is always telling funny stories, clowning around and doing things.

2. Ne' hutinktanne hatyuu'ts.
He works in the hospital.

3. Ty'tk' akwas hakteueskwa' uneuk' u'sut khu hatuwskwa'.
He used to gather ginseng roots and hunt deer and wild turkey.

4. Ta un waunyk ne yny'.
Then he married a White girl.

5. Wawyyak't hutinktanne.
She made him go to work in the hospital.

6. Kakhwa' waakhwaawi'sk ne' knt ks n-utinktnni.
He carries dinner trays up to the patients.

7. Ne' huik n-utinktanne n-n ti'kwa sha'te't' hwnt ne hunu' khu ne hu'ni teatikanya's.
In that hospital whenever somebody has a baby they give the mother and father a free steak dinner.

8. Ne' ti n wai taasnye't tniyenw'kh' hwhs, "Ne' te'n-' te'kiwakwniyustha' ta'kwist' hsathwi', ne' s' satyanht's sh."
One of the workers, his partner, said to him, I don't believe anything you say, because you just clown around.

9. "Ne' wai," wa' ne teyaknyatnt'.
That's good, said my cousin.

10. Tsek, ha'tekakt s nnkwe't ntekhni' ta'ttikanya'k, ne' n-e'tk ne tekwe'tk wniwi' ks khewak huik.
Look here, they need three free steak dinners upstairs because there are two men who both claim to be the father.

11. "Nyu", wa'.
"Alright," he said.

12. Ne' shay' ne he'tk, wa', "Kw n-ya' ne hkwe?"
When he got upstairs he said, "Where is the other man?"

13. "N niyu't?" wa'k'. "N te's teehswakwniyust?"
"What do you mean by that?" she said. "Surely you don't believe him?"

14. Ta un n'w, sha'eynta't ne yekhni, kakwk n hntyuu'ts ha'ty shakunw.
Then when the cook retired, all the workers brought her presents.

15. Ne' ha'ty n-uta'' ne' khu ha'ty n-wista' shakunw.
They gave her all kinds of things, lace and silver.

16. Ne' ne teyaknyatnt' ne' huik atk' u'shaka', atk' u'shaka'.
Well, my cousin, he gave her an ax.

17. "T' kw?" wa'k'.
"Why in the world?" she said.

18. Ne' ukwny ne'hu aasye't ks sa'shas n wihik.
I thought you liked useful things.


Glossary

(1) Hutynt ne teyaknyatnt'. Ne' wai tyutkt utwatyanht's thynyn' ks ne' khu tyan't ks twayen'.
My cousin is a funny guy. He is always telling funny stories, clowning around and doing things.

hutynt -- he's a funny guy
h[u]- MsP/A prefix, -atyanht- be funny [Basic Stative]
ne -- [particle]
teyaknyatnt' -- we two are siblings/cousins
te- Dualic, -yakny- EdA/A prefix, te...atnt- be related as siblings/cousins [Basic Stative]
ne' wai -- [particle phrase]
tyutkt -- always
utwatyanht's -- funny stories
[u]- NsP/A prefix, -at- Middle prefix, -w- matter (story), -atyanht- be funny [Basic Stative Plural]
thynyn' -- he will tell (about) them
- Future prefix, -h- MsA/A prefix, - athyunyn- tell about things [Simple Future]. Note that the h of the MsA/A prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels. Note also that the initial a of the verb base is nasalizeed to when it comes after the of the Future prefix.
ks -- often, frequently
ne' khu -- [particle phrase]
tyan't -- he will clown around
- Future prefix, -h- MsA/A prefix, - atyan't- clown around [Simple Future]. Note that the h of the MsA/A prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels. Note also that the initial a of the verb base is nasalizeed to when it comes after the of the Future prefix.
ks -- often, frequently
twayen' -- he will do things
- Future prefix, -h- MsA/A prefix, - atwayen- do things [Simple Future]. Note that the h of the MsA/A prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels. Note also that the initial a of the verb base is nasalizeed to when it comes after the of the Future prefix.

(2)Ne' hutinktanne hatyuu'ts.
He works in the hospital.

ne' -- [particle]
hutinktanne -- at the hospital
huti- MpP/C prefix, -nktani- be sick, -ne Locative suffix. Note that the Locative suffix - ne causes the preceding vowel to lengthen.
hatyuu'ts -- he works
h- MsA/A prefix, -atyuu'tat- work [Basic Habitual]

(3)Ty'tk' akwas hakteueskwa' uneuk' u'sut khu hatuwskwa'.
He used to gather ginseng roots and hunt deer and wild turkey.

ty'tk' -- ginseng
akwas -- very, much, alot
hakteueskwa' -- he used to gather, collect roots
ha- MsA/X prefix, -kte- root, -euek- gather, collect something together [Habitual Past]. Note that the initial e of the verb base -euek- appears to get dropped here.
uneuk' -- deer
u'sut -- turkey
hatuwskwa' -- he used to hunt
h- MsA/A prefix, -atuwt- hunt [Habitual Past]

(4)Ta un waunyk ne yny'.
Then he married a White girl.

ta un -- and so then...
waunyk -- he (got) married
wa- Factual prefix, -hu- MsP/X prefix, -nyak- marry, get married [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the MsP/X prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
ne -- [particle]
yny' -- she is White
y- FsA/L prefix, -ny'- be a White person [Basic Stative]

(5)Wawyyak't hutinktanne.
She made him go to work in the hospital.

wawyyak't -- she made him work
wa- Factual prefix, -hw- Fs/Ms/C prefix, -yyak't- make someone work [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the Fs/Ms/C prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
hutinktanne -- at the hospital
huti- MpP/C prefix, -nktani- be sick, -ne Locative suffix. Note that the Locative suffix - ne causes the preceding vowel to lengthen.

(6)Kakhwa' waakhwaawi'sk ne' knt ks n-utinktnni.
He carries dinner trays up to the patients.

kakhwa' -- food
ka- NsA/X prefix, -khw- food, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix
waakhwaawi'sk -- he would carry food
wa- Factual, -ha- MsA, -khw- food, -a- Linker Vowel, -hawi- carry, -'s- Habitual, -k Continuative
ne' -- [particle]
knt -- he will feed them
- Future prefix, -hak- Ms/3p/C prefix, -nt- feed [Simple Future]. Note that the h of the Ms/3p/C prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
ks -- often, frequently
n-utinktnni -- the patients
n- shortened form of ne, huti- MpP/C prefix, -nktnni- several people be sick [Basic Habitual]. Note that the h of the MpP/C prefix is dropped out when ne is contracted onto the front of the word.

(7)Ne' huik n-utinktanne n-n ti'kwa sha'te't' hwnt ne hunu' khu ne hu'ni teatikanya's.
In that hospital whenever somebody has a baby they give the mother and father a free steak dinner.

ne' -- [particle]
huik -- that (one)
n-utinktanne -- at the hospital
n- shortened form of ne, huti- MpP/C prefix, -nktani- be sick, -ne Locative suffix. Note that the h of the MpP/C prefix is dropped off when ne is contracted onto the front of the word. Note also that the Locative suffix - ne causes the preceding vowel to lengthen.
n-n -- at that time
n- shortened form of ne, n now, at that time
ti'kwa -- with preceeding word, whenever
sha'te't' -- when someone has given birth
sha'- Coincident + Factual prefixes, -y[]- FsA/A prefix, -ate't- give birth [Simple Factual]. Note that the y of the FsA/A prefix is dropped out when it comes after /'/.
hwnt -- he feeds them
hw- Ms/3p/C prefix -nt- feed [Basic Habitual]
ne -- [particle]
hunu' -- his mother
khu -- and
ne -- [particle]
hu'ni -- his father
teatikanya's -- they do not pay
te- Negative prefix, -hati- MpA/X prefix, -kanya'k- pay [Basic Habitual]. Note that the initial h of the MpA/X prefix is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.

(8)Ne' ti n wai taasnye't tniyenw'kh' hwhs, "Ne' te'n-' te'kiwakwniyustha' ta'kwist' hsathywi', ne' s' satyanht's sh."
One of the workers, his partner, said to him, "I don't believe anything you say, because you just clown around."

ne' ti n wai -- [particle phrase(s)]
taasnye't -- he spoke up
t- Cislocative prefix, -a- Factual prefix, -ha- MsA/X prefix, t...snye'- speak up, utter something [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the MsA/X prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
tniyenw'kh' -- those two guys work together, they are partners
te- Dualic prefix, -ni- MdA/C prefix, te...yenw'kh- work together, be partners [Basic Stative]. Note that the MdA prefix -ni- causes the preceding vowel to lengthen.
hwhs -- he's said to him
hw- Ms/Ms/ prefix, -hse- say something to someone [Basic Stative]
ne' -- [particle]
te'n-' -- not me, not I
te'- Negative prefix, n- contracted form of ne, ' I, me, we, us
te'kiwakwniyustha' -- I don't believe you
te'- Negative prefix, -k- 1s/2s/C, - wakwniyust- believe someone [Basic Habitual]
ta'kwist' -- nothing
hsathywi' -- you will tell (about) it
- Future prefix, -hs- 2sA/A prefix, -athyuwi- tell (about) something [Simple Future]
ne' -- [particle]
s' -- because
satyanht's -- you clown around
s- 2sP/A prefix, -atyanht- be funny [Basic Stative Plural]
sh -- just

(9)"Ne' wai," wa' ne teyaknyatnt'.
"That's good," said my cousin.

ne' wai -- that's good
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say [Simple Factual]
ne -- [particle]
teyaknyatnt' -- we two are siblings/cousins
te- Dualic, -yakny- EdA/A prefix, te...atnt- be related as siblings/cousins [Basic Stative]

(10)Tsk, ha'tekakt s nnkwe't ntekhni' ta'ttikanya'k, ne' n-e'tk ne tekwe'tk wniwi' ks khewak huik.
"Look here, they need three free steak dinners upstairs because there are two men who both claim to be the father."

tsk -- look here
t- Cislocative prefix, -se- 2sA/X prefix, -k- see [Basic Imperative]
ha'tekakt -- it is necessary, must
ha'te- Dualic + Translocative preplex, -ka- NsA/X prefix -kt- do something [Neuter Passive Stative]
s -- three (3)
nnkwe't -- that many people?
ntekhni' -- they will eat
- Future prefix, -hn[]- MpA/A prefix, -atekhny- have a meal [Simple Future]. Note that the h of the MpA/A prefix is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
ta'ttikanya'k -- they won't pay, free
ne' -- [particle]
n-e'tk -- upstairs
n- contracted form of ne, he'tk up, above. Note that the initial h of he'tk is dropped of when ne is contracted onto the front.
ne tekwe'tk --- two men
ne [particle], te- Dualic prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, te...kwe'take- be two people [Basic Stative]. Note that the h of the MsA/ prefix is dropped out when it comes between two vowels, making it look like there is no Pronominal prefix in this form at all.
wniwi' -- those two guys say
wa- Factual prefix, -ni- MdA/C prefix, -hyuwi- tell [Simple Factual]. Note that the hy sequence of the verb base is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels. Note also that the MdA/C prefix -ni- causes the preceding vowel to become long.
ks -- often
khewak -- my daughter
huik -- that one

(11) "Nyu", wa'.
"Alright," he said.

nyu -- alright
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.

(12)Ne' shay' ne he'tk, wa', "Kw n-ya' ne hkwe?"
When he got upstairs he said, "Where is the other man?"

ne' -- [particle]
shay' -- when he arrived
sh- Coincident prefix, -a- Factual prefix, -ha- MsA/C prefix, -y- arrive [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the MsA/C prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
ne he'tk -- upstairs
ne [particle], he'tk up, above
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the h of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
kw -- where?
n-ya' -- the other one
n- contracted form of ne, - NsP/L prefix, -y- other, another, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix.
ne hkwe -- the man
ne [particle], h- MsA/ prefix - kwe person.

(13) "N niyu't?" wa'k'. "N te's teehswakwniyust?"
"What do you mean by that?" she said. "Surely you don't believe him?"

n niyu't? -- what do you mean?
n [particle], ni- Partitive prefix, -y- NsA/O prefix, ni...u't- be a kind of something [Basic Stative].
wa'k' -- she said
wa'- Factual prefix, -yak- FsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the y of the FsA/ prefix is dropped out following the ' of the Factual prefix.
n -- [particle]
te's -- you don't, not you
te'- Negative prefix, s you.
teehswakwniyust -- you do not believe him
te- Negative prefix, -hehs- 2s/Ms/C prefix, -wakwniyust- believe [Basic Stative]. Note that the initial h of the 2s/Ms/C prefix -hehs- is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.

(14) Ta un n'w, sha'eynta't ne yekhni, kakwk n hntyuu'ts ha'ty shakunw.
Then when the cook retired, all the workers brought her presents.

ta un n'w -- so now then it happened...
sha'eynta't -- when she retired
sh- Coincident prefix, -a'- Factual prefix, -ye- FsA/C prefix, -ynta'- finish doing something [Simple Factual]. Note that the y of the FsA/C prefix is dropped out when it comes after the ' of the Factual prefix.
ne yekhni -- the cook (female)
ne [particle], ye- FsA/X prefix - khny- make food [Basic Habitual].
kakwk -- all
ka- NsA/X prefix, -kwek- be all [Basic Stative].
n -- [particle]
hntyuu'ts -- they work
hn[]- MpA/A prefix, -atyuu'tat- work [Basic Habitual]
ha'ty -- everything, all kinds of things
ha'te- Dualic + Translocative preplex, -y- NsA/ prefix -- be a certain amount [Basic Stative]
shakunw -- they gave it to her
shakun[]- 3p/Fs/A prefix, -awi- give something to someone [Basic Stative].

(15) Ne' ha'ty n-uta'' ne' khu ha'ty n-wista' shakunw.
They gave her all kinds of things, lace and silver.

ne' -- [particle]
ha'ty -- everything, all kinds of things
ha'te- Dualic + Translocative preplex, -y- NsA/ prefix -- be a certain amount [Basic Stative]
n-uta'' -- lace
n- contracted form of ne, [u]- NsP/A prefix, -ata'a- lace, veil, webbing, -- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix. Note that the final a of the Noun Base changes to when it comes immediately before the Linker Vowel .
ne' -- [particle]
khu -- and
ha'ty -- everything, all kinds of things
ha'te- Dualic + Translocative preplex, -y- NsA/ prefix -- be a certain amount [Basic Stative]
n-wista' -- silver
n- contracted form of ne, - NsP/L prefix, -wist- silver, money, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix.
shakunw -- they gave it to her
shakun[]- 3p/Fs/A prefix, -awi- give something to someone [Basic Stative].

(16) Ne' ne teyaknyatnt' ne' huik atk' u'shaka', atk' u'shaka'.
Well, my cousin, he gave her an ax.

ne' -- [particle]
ne teyaknyatnt' -- we two are siblings/cousins
ne [particle], te- Dualic, -yakny- EdA/A prefix, te...atnt- be related as siblings/cousins [Basic Stative]
ne' -- [particle]
huik -- that, that one
atk' -- ax
u'shaka' -- he gave it to her
u'- Factual prefix, -shaka- Ms/Fs/ prefix, -- give something to someone [Simple Factual].

(17) "T' kw?" wa'k'.
"Why in the world?" she said.

t' kw? -- why? why in the world?
wa'k' -- she said
wa'- Factual prefix, -yak- FsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the y of the FsA/ prefix is dropped out following the ' of the Factual prefix.

(18) Ne' ukwny ne'hu aasye't ks sa'shas n wihik.
I thought you liked useful things.

ne' -- [particle]
ukwny -- it is possible, can
u- NsP/X prefix, -kwny- be possible [Basic Stative].
ne'hu -- [particle]
aasye't -- you might use it
aa- Optative prefix, -s- 2sA/C prefix, -ye't- use something [Simple Optative].
ks -- often
sa'shas -- it pleases you, you like it
sa- 2sP/ prefix, -'esha- something pleases someone, like something [Basic Habitual].
n -- [particle]
wihik -- I thought

[TM: 8/96]
[Index]