The Mingo Salamander, so called for having been tried in the fire and found vaunting.

Tak''sh'

Chickens

1.Marlene Corn khiy's.
Marlene Corn came to visit us.

2. Cornstalk ki'sh' yeyasn' ti'kw.
Maybe her name used to be Cornstalk, I don't know.

3."Unhtsi tkkn'", u'ki'.
"I haven't seen you for a long time", I said.

4. Ne' n-' akny's', ne' swnht'.
We're cousins, you know.

5. Huntekhwtke wa'akwatekhnyn' u'tyakwatt.
We went out to eat together.

6. Ne' ne kunhkwa' wa'kwe'.
Her husband was with us.

7. Waathywi' ne' tak'' s ny niyuhsinyt'.
He told about the three-legged chicken.

8. Ka'sehta'ke thsiuhttytye', waatykwa si aky huik tak'' ne' katakhe' wathaakttye'.
He was going along in the car when he all of a sudden saw this chicken running along the road.

9. Ne' ne tak'' usnwe' wa'etakhe' niyu't uhtty ne ka'sehta'.
The chicken was running as fast as the car was going.

10. Aky usnwe' ne' s' ne s ny niyuhsinyt'.
It could really go fast because it had three legs.

11. Wausnw, ta un wa'usnw khu ne tak''.
He speeded up, and the chicken speeded up too.

12. Ne' ne hekkt skatkwti hu'we' ne' hewe kty'.
Finally it turned left where there was a farm.

13. Want'.
He followed it.

14. "U'sk' ne tak'' ne' s niyuhsinyt' nekhu katakhe'?" wawyat' ne haythwas.
"Did you see a three-legged chicken running here?" he asked the farmer.

15. "'," thusnye'. "Wsu' nekhu huik tkanke'. Ukwny wsu' aakhwistku' huntekhwtke aakhnn'."
"Yes," he said. "We've got a lot of them around here. I might make a bundle of money selling them to restaurants."

16. "Ne' n-n wsu' u'snn'?"
"Have you sold many already?"

17. "H', thsiye' tkkt hsku'".
"No, have to catch it first."

18. "Ne'hu wai ne' sh kaka'", u'ki'.
"That's just a story," I said.

19. Hwa'kw' huwe Cory thunhst khu ne yekhtsi.
I went over to Cory's place along with the wife.

20. Hatinyusyt n-aste hnukys khu awtu'ke'.
They were sitting on the porch shelling peas.

21. "Tewakatnt ne tak'' un''sh' aayakwku'," wa'.
"I wish we could get chicken heads," he said.

22. "Ukwenyn' ks aeswaku' ne tak'' un''sh' he thn'wthwas."
"It used to be you could get chicken heads at the slaughterhouse."

23. "Ne' n-n ta'a te'hsku'."
"You can't get any now though."

24. "Ne' n-n hatikhwasyni ne tsy hsnt."
"They make dog food out of it."

25. "Unhtsi thsikkwe'ts' akwninskwa' ne tak'' un''sh' akwa'yuak."
"Long ago when I was a young man we used to buy chicken heads and make soup out of them."

26. Ne' wai n uka'."
"That sure was good."

27. "Aky," wa'k'. "Te'wt ne'hu thaakekhni."
"Oh," she said. "I would never eat that."

28. Wauiwanku' ne Cory.
Cory was surprised.

29. "Ne'hu niseskwa'," wa'.
"Well, you used to," he said.

30. Ne' n-n wai ky ne hwtiehahse wa'k' khu, "swneke' ahs' ha'kwist' k swk?
Just then the waitress came and said, "Do you want anything else to eat or drink?"

31. "Kan'ytn' ne tak''?" u'ki'.
"Do you have any chicken heads?" I said.


Glossary

1.Marlene Corn khiy's.
Marlene Corn came to visit us.

khiy's -- she visited us
khi- Fs/1dp/C prefix, -y'se- visit someone [Basic Stative]

2.Cornstalk ki'sh' yeyasn' ti'kw.
Maybe her name used to be Cornstalk, I don't know.

ki'sh' -- maybe, perhaps
yeyasn' -- she used to be called
ye- FsA/C prefix, -yas- be called [Stative Past].
ti'kw -- I dunno

3."Unhtsi tkkn'", u'ki'.
"I haven't seen you for a long time", I said.

unhtsi -- long ago
n now, at this time, -htsi Intensifier suffix. Note that the first vowel is shortened.
tkkn' -- I had seen you there/then
t- Cislocative prefix, -k- 1s/2s/X prefix, -k- see [Stative Past].
u'ki' -- I said
u'- Factual prefix, -k- 1sA/I prefix, -- say [Simple Factual]. Note that the verb base -- say takes the irregular Simple stem form -i'.

4. Ne' n-' akny's', ne' swnht'.
We're cousins, you know.

ne' -- [sentential particle]
n-' -- we, us
akny's' -- the two of us (excl) are cousins
ne' -- [sentential particle]
swnht' -- y'all know
sw- 2pP/ prefix, -nht- know something [Basic Stative].

5. Huntekhwtke wa'akwatekhnyn' u'tyakwatt.
We went out to eat together.

huntekhwtke -- restaurant
wa'akwatekhnyn' -- we went to eat
wa'- Factual prefix, -akw- EpA/A prefix, -atekhny- have a meal [Dislocative Simple Factual].
u'tyakwatt -- we ate together
u'- Factual prefix, -t- Dualic prefix, -yakw- EpA/A prefix, te...att- eat together [Simple Factual].

6. Ne' ne kunhkwa' wa'kwe'.
Her husband was with us.

ne' -- [sentential particle]
ne kunhkwa' -- her husband
ku- FsP/C prefix, -nhkw- spouse, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix.
wa'kwe' -- we went
wa'- Factual prefix, -akw- EpA/E prefix, -e- go [Factual Imperfective(?)].

7. Waathywi' ne' tak'' s ny niyuhsinyt'.
He told about the three-legged chicken.

waathywi' -- he told about it
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/A prefix, -athyuwi- tell about something [Simple Factual].
ne' -- [sentential particle]
tak'' -- chicken
s -- three (3)
ny -- it is that many
ni- Partitive prefix, -y- NsA/ prefix, ni...- be a certain amount [Basic Stative].
niyuhsinyt' -- how many legs it has
ni- Partitive prefix, -yu- NsP/X prefix, -hsin- leg, -- Linker Vowel, -yt- have several of something [Basic Stative].

8. Ka'sehta'ke thsiuhttytye', waatykwa si aky huik tak'' ne' katakhe' wathaakttye'.
He was going along in the car when he all of a sudden saw this chicken running along the road.

ka'sehta'ke -- in the car
ka- NsA/X prefix, -'seht- car, -a- Linker Vowel, -'- Basic Noun Suffix, - ke External Locative Suffix.
thsiuhttytye' -- as he was going along
thsi- Coincident prefix, -h[u]- MsP/A prefix, -ahtty- go [Basic Progressive Imperfective]. Note that the -h- of the MsP/A prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
waatykwa -- he suddenly noticed
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/A prefix, -atykwa- [Simple Factual].
si -- ???
aky -- wow
huik -- this
tak'' -- chicken
ne' --[sentential particle]
katakhe' -- it is running
ka- NsA/C prefix, -takh- run [Basic Imperfective].
wathaakttye' -- along the road
w- NsA/A prefix, -at- Middle prefix, -ha- road, -a- Linker Vowel, -kt- be next to something [Basic Progressive Imperfective].

9. Ne' ne tak'' usnwe' wa'etakhe' niyu't uhtty ne ka'sehta'.
The chicken was running as fast as the car was going.

ne' --[sentential particle]
ne tak'' -- chicken
usnwe' -- it is fast
u- NsP/X prefix, -snuw- be fast [Basic Stative].
wa'etakhe' -- she was running
wa'- Factual prefix, -e- FsA/C prefix, -takh- run [Factual Imperfective].
niyu't -- it is of that kind
ni- Partitive prefix, -y- NsA/O prefix, ni...u't- be of a certain kind or type [Basic Stative].
ne ka'sehta' -- the car
ka- NsA/X prefix, -'seht- car, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix.

10. Aky usnwe' ne' s' ne s ny niyuhsinyt'.
It could really go fast because it had three legs.

aky -- wow, gosh
usnwe' -- it is fast
u- NsP/X prefix, -snuw- be fast [Basic Stative].
ne' --[sentential particle]
s' -- because
ne s -- three (3)
ny -- it is that many
ni- Partitive prefix, -y- NsA/ prefix, ni...- be a certain amount [Basic Stative].
niyuhsinyt' -- how many legs it has
ni- Partitive prefix, -yu- NsP/X prefix, -hsin- leg, -- Linker Vowel, -yt- have several of something [Basic Stative].

11. Wausnw, ta un wa'usnw khu ne tak''.
He speeded up, and the chicken speeded up too.

wausnw -- he sped up
wa- Factual prefix, -hu- MsP/X prefix, -snuw- speed up, accelerate [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsP/X prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
ta un -- and then
wa'usnw -- it sped up
wa'- Factual prefix, -u- NsP/X prefix, -snuw- speed up, accelerate [Simple Factual].
khu -- and, too
ne tak'' -- chicken

12. Ne' ne hekkt skatkwti hu'we' ne' hewe kty'.
Finally it turned left where there was a farm.

ne' -- [sentential particle]
ne hekkt -- it happened
he- Translocative prefix, -ka- NsA/X prefix, he...kt- something happens [Basic Stative]
skatkwti -- the left (side)
hu'we' -- it went there
h- Translocative prefix, -u'- Factual prefix, -w- NsA/E prefix, -e- go [Factual Imperfective(?)].
ne' -- [sentential particle]
hewe -- where, at that place
kty' -- there is a farm
k[]- NsA/I prefix, -it- field, meadow, farm, -a- Linker Vowel, -y- have, be [Basic Stative].

13. Want'.
He followed it.

want' -- he followed it
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/L prefix, -nt- follow something [Simple Factual].

14. "U'sk' ne tak'' ne' s niyuhsinyt' nekhu katakhe'?" wawyat' ne haythwas.
"Did you see a three-legged chicken running here?" he asked the farmer.

u'sk' -- you saw it
u'- Factual prefix, -se- 2sA/X prefix, -k- see something [Simple Factual].
ne tak'' -- chicken
ne' -- [sentential particle]
s -- three (3)
niyuhsinyt' -- how many legs it has
ni- Partitive prefix, -yu- NsP/X prefix, -hsin- leg, -- Linker Vowel, -yt- have several of something [Basic Stative].
nekhu -- here
katakhe' -- it is running
ka- NsA/C prefix, -takh- run [Basic Imperfective].
wawyat' -- he asked him
wa- Factual prefix, -hwy- Ms/Ms/A prefix, -at- ask someone something [Simple Factual].
ne haythwas -- the farmer
ha- MsA/C prefix, -ythw- plant something [Basic Habitual]

15. "'," thusnye'. "Wsu' nekhu huik tkanke'. Ukwny wsu' aakhwistku' huntekhwtke aakhnn'."
"Yes," he said. "We've got a lot of them around here. I might make a bundle of money selling them to restaurants."

' -- yes
thusnye' -- he said
t- Cislocative prefix, -hu- MsP/X prefix, t...snye'- say something [Basic Stative].
wsu' -- many, alot
nekhu -- here
huik -- this
tkanke' -- it lives there
t- Cislocative prefix, -ka- NsA/X prefix, -nk- live somewhere [Basic Stative].
ukwny -- it is possible
u- NsP/X prefix, -kweny- something is possible [Basic Stative].
wsu' -- many, alot
aakhwistku' -- I would make money
aa- Optative prefix, -kh- 1sA/L prefix, -wist- money, -a- Linker Vowel, -kw- collect, gather [Simple Optative].
huntekhwtke -- restaurant
aaknn' -- I would sell it
aa- Optative prefix, -k- 1sA/X prefix, -nin- sell something [Simple Optative].

16. "Ne' n-n wsu' u'snn'?"
"Have you sold many already?"

ne' -- [sentential particle]
n-n -- now, already
wsu' -- many, alot
u'snn' -- you sold it
u'- Factual prefix, -s- 2sA/L prefix, -nin- sell something [Simple Factual].

17. "H', thsiye' tkkt hsku'".
"No, have to catch it first."

h' -- no
thsiye' -- first of all
tkkt -- ???
t- Cislocative prefix, -ka- NsA/X prefix, -kt- something happens [Basic Stative]
hsku' -- you will catch it
- Future prefix, -hse- 2sA/X prefix, -kw- collect, gather [Simple Future]

18. "Ne'hu wai ne' sh kaka'", u'ki'.
"That's just a story," I said.

ne'hu wai ne' -- ???
sh -- just, only
kaka' -- story
ka- NsA/X prefix, -ka- story, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix.
u'ki' -- I said
u'- Factual prefix, -k- 1sA/I prefix, -i- say something [Simple Factual].
19. Hwa'kw' huwe Cory thunhst khu ne yekhtsi.
I went over to Cory's place along with the wife.

hwa'kw' -- we all went there
h- Translocative prefix, -wa'- Factual prefix, -akw- EpA/E prefix, -e- go [Simple Directive Imperfective?].
huwe -- where
thunhst -- his house is there
t- Cislocative prefix, -hu- MsP/C prefix, -nhs- house, -ut- stand [Basic Stative].
khu -- and
ne yekhtsi -- wife, old lady
ye- FsA/X prefix, -khtsi- someone be old [Basic Stative].

20. Hatinyusyt n-aste hnukys khu awtu'ke'.
They were sitting on the porch shelling peas.

hatinyusyt -- they are sitting
hati- MpA/X prefix, -nyusyut- be sitting [Basic Stative].
n-aste -- outside
hnukys -- they are shelling
hn- MpA/O prefix, -uky- shell something [Basic Habitual].
khu -- and
awtu'ke' -- peas

21. "Tewakatnt ne tak'' un''sh' aayakwku'," wa'.
"I wish we could get chicken heads," he said.

tewakatnt -- I wish that this would happen
te- Dualic prefix, -wak- 1sP/A prefix, te...atnt- wish that something would happen [Basic Stative].
ne tak'' -- chicken
un'ee'sh' -- (its) heads
u- NsP/C prefix, -n'- head, -- Linker Vowel, -'- Basic Noun Suffix, - sh' Plural Number Suffix.
aayakwku' -- we could get it
aa- Optative prefix, -yakwa- EpA/X prefix, -kw- gather, collect, get something [Simple Optative].
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.

22. "Ukwenyn' ks aeswaku' ne tak'' un''sh' he thn'wthwas."
"It used to be you could get chicken heads at the slaughterhouse.

ukwenyn' -- it was possible, used to be able to
u- NsP/X prefix -kweny- something be possible [Stative Past].
ks -- often, frequently
aeswaku' -- y'all could get it
ae- Optative prefix, -swa- 2pA/X prefix, -kw- gather, collect, get something [Simple Optative].
ne tak'' -- chicken
un'ee'sh' -- (its) heads
u- NsP/C prefix, -n'- head, -- Linker Vowel, -'- Basic Noun Suffix, - sh' Plural Number Suffix.
he -- where
thn'wthwas -- slaughterhouse
t- Cislocative prefix, -hn[]- MpA/A prefix, -a'wthw- slaughter [Basic Habitual]. Literally, "they slaughter [animals] there".
23. "Ne' n-n ta'a te'hsku'."
"You can't get any now though."

ne' -- [sentential particle]
n-n -- now
ta'a -- it is not possible; impossible
te'hsku' -- you will not get it
te'- Negative prefix, -- Future prefix, -hse- 2sA/X prefix, -kw- gather, collect, get something [Simple Future w/ Negative].

24. "Ne' n-n hatikhwasyni ne tsy hsnt."
"They make dog food out of it."

ne' -- [sentential particle]
n-n -- now
hatikhwasyni -- they make food
hati- MpA/X prefix, -khw- food, -a- Linker Vowel, -syny- make something [Basic Habitual].
ne tsy -- dog
hsnt -- you will feed it
- Future prefix, -hs- 2sA/C prefix, -nt- feed someone [Simple Future].

25. "Unhtsi thsikkwe'ts' akwninskwa' ne tak'' un''sh' akwa'yuak."
"Long ago when I was a young man we used to buy chicken heads and make soup out of them."

unhtsi -- long ago
n at that time, -htsi Intensifier suffix.
thsikkwe'ts' -- when I was a young person
thsi- Coincident prefix, -k- 1sA/ prefix, -kwe't+ person, -ase- be young, new [Basic Stative].
akwninskwa' -- we used to buy it
akw- EpA/L prefix, -nin- buy something [Habitual Past].
ne tak'' -- chicken
un'ee'sh' -- (its) heads
u- NsP/C prefix, -n'- head, -- Linker Vowel, -'- Basic Noun Suffix, - sh' Plural Number Suffix.
akwa'yuak -- we used to make soup??

26. Ne' wai n uka'."
"That sure was good."

ne' wai n -- for sure???
uka' -- it tastes good
u- NsP/X prefix, -ka'- something tastes good [Basic Stative].

27. "Aky," wa'k'. "Te'wt ne'hu thaakekhni."
"Oh," she said. "I would never eat that."

aky -- gee, gosh, oh my
wa'k' -- she said
wa'- Factual prefix, -ak- FsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual].
te'wt -- never
te'- Negative prefix, wt when.
ne'hu -- thus, that (type of) thing
thaakekhni -- I wouldn't have that to eat
th- Contrastive prefix, -aa- Optative prefix, -ke- 1sA/X prefix, -khny- make food, have something to eat [Simple Optative].

28. Wauiwanku' ne Cory.
Cory was surprised.

wauiwanku' -- it surprised him
wa- Factual prefix, -hu- MsP/C prefix, -wankw- something surprises someone [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsP/C prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.

29. "Ne'hu niseskwa'," wa'.
"Well, you used to," he said.

ne'hu -- thus, that (type of) thing
niseskwa' -- you used to eat that kind of thing
ni- Partitive prefix, -se- 2sA/X prefix, -k- eat something [Habitual Past].
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.

30. Ne' n-n wai ky ne hwtiehahse wa'k' khu "swneke' ahs' ha'kwist' k swk?"
Just then the waitress came and said, "Do you want anything else to eat or drink?"

ne' -- [sentential particle]
n-n -- now
wai -- really, indeed
ky -- she arrived
ku- FsP/C prefix, -y- arrive, get somewhere [Basic Stative].
ne hwtiehahse -- waitress
hwti- Fs/Mp/C prefix, -ehas- serve food to someone [Basic Habitual].
wa'k' -- she said
wa'- Factual prefix, -ak- FsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual].
khu -- and
swneke' -- you all will drink it
- Future prefix, -sw- 2pA/L prefix, -neke- drink something [Simple Future].
ahs' -- something else???
ha'kwist' -- something
k -- or
swk -- you all will eat it
- Future prefix, -swa- 2pA/X prefix, -k- eat something [Simple Future].

31. "Kan'ytn' ne tak''?" u'ki'.
"Do you have any chicken heads?" I said.

kan'ytn' -- there are heads
ka- NsA/C prefix, -n'- head, -- Linker Vowel, -ytn- several things exist [Basic Stative].
ne tak'' -- chicken
u'ki' -- I said
u'- Factual prefix, -k- 1sA/I prefix, -i- say something [Simple Factual]

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