Swnisht Akst Akwe's

A Day with Grandmother
"Ukwny skyst' twanhkwa'syni' ttwyes, akst?" twakesnye'.
"Can you teach me how to make medicine, grandma?" I said.

"N, t' na'u't s kyst'?"
"Well, what do you want me to teach you?"

"Kakwk n," u'ki'.
"Everything," I said.

"Utsikw'ta' huik unhkwa'sh' wy tahke. Ukwny hsyk utsya'sh' uka'. Ukwy'sh' ukwny hsnya't neka'tai."
"That honeysuckle (Lonicera sp.) is a very good medicine. You can eat the berries and they taste good. You can boil the twigs and make a tea."

"Tks? T' kaya'takhas?"
"Really? What does it cure?"

"Utsikw'ta' huik kaya'takhas. Na'u't ahs'? Ha'tekakt uhw't ne' akt ne uhw'as' hsku'."
"It cures venereal disease. What else? You have to take the sprouts, I mean the new shoots."

"Aids khu n kaya'takhas?"
"Will it cure Aids too?"

"H'. N w auska'a ne pokeweed ukte' Aids kaya'takhas."
"No. I think only pokeweed root (Phytolacca americana) will cure Aids."

"T' hsi' 'pokeweed' kwe'wkh'?"
"How do you say 'pokeweed' in Mingo?"

"Ne' n knikh."
"I forgot."

"Ukwny kye't ha'ty ne atnsh'?"
"Can I use mayapple (Podophyllum pelatum) for something?"

"Tks. Tyaw' ks kyhsa' n-atnsh' unhta'sh'. Ne' ne usth ukte' ukwny snhkwa'shk, kwhe te'aknht' na'u't uya'takh. Tykwa n aknhi'tt k akekn' knhtaku' ne uthkw'tt katath' kye't huik unhta'."
"Certainly. I always make a poultice of mayapple tops. You can also use a little of the root internally, but I do not know what it cures. If I have a wort or a mole I will take a leaf of broad- leafed arrowhead (Sagittaria sp.) and cut myself with the leaf."

"T' ntsye't ne kw'tny' uhtahkwa'?"
"How do you use the yellow ladyslipper (Cypripedium sp.)?"

"Ha'ty hsku' kanyu' uhtak ne aw'sh' ahs' kwhe kanhtaikh. Kakwk n uh kethe't sh. Ukwny hsnya't neka'tai k tsynya'. Ne' huik kaya'takhas ne u'nya' unkte'."
"I take the whole plant after it blooms and it is still green. I pound it in a pestle once it is dried. You can boil it for tea or make a poultice. It cures painful joints."


swnisht -- one day
sw- Repetitive + NsA/ prefixes, -nish- day, -- Linker Vowel, -t be one [Stative]
akst -- (my) grandmother
akwe's -- we are (there)
akw- EpA/E prefix, -e's go [Habitual] Note the specialized meaning of "be somewhere", instead of the expected "go somewhere".
ukwny -- it is possible, can
u- NsP/C prefix, -kwny be possible [Stative]
skyst' -- you will teach me (how)
sk- Future + 2s/1s prefixes, -yst' teach someone something [Simple]
twanhkwa'syni' -- we will make medicine
twa- Future + IpA/C prefixes, -nhkwa'sh- medicine, -ni' make something [Simple]. Note the change of the /sh/ at the end of the incorporated noun base -nhkwa'sh- to /sy/ when it comes before the // of the verb stem -ni'
ttwyes -- we will mix it (together)
ttwa- Dualic + Future + IpA/C prefixes, te...yes mix something together [Simple]
twakesnye' -- I said
twake- Cislocative + 1sP/X prefixes, t...snye' say something [Stative]
n -- well
huik -- that, that one
t' na'u't -- what?
s -- you want
kyst' -- I will teach it to you
k- Future + 1s/2s prefixes, -yst' teach someone something [Simple]
kakwk -- all, everything
ka- NsA/C, -kwk be all [Stative]
u'ki' -- I said
u'k- Factual + 1sA/C prefixes, -i' say something [Simple]
utsikw'ta' -- honeysuckle or venereal disease
u- NsP/C prefix, -tsikw't- honeysuckle, venereal disease, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
unhkwa'sh' -- medicine
u- NsP/C prefix, -nhkwash- medicine, -- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
wy -- it is good
w- NsA/I prefix, -y be good [Stative]
tahke -- very, awfully, terribly
hsyk -- you will eat berries
hs- Future + 2sA/A prefixes, -y- berry, -a- Linker Vowel, -k eat [Simple] Note: The Simple stem of "eat", -k, causes a preceding vowel to lengthen.
utsya'sh' -- fruits, berries
u- NsP/X, -tsy- fruit, berry, -a- Linker Vowel, -'- Noun Suffix, -sh' Plural suffix
uka' -- it is tasty, good to eat
u- NsP/X, -ka' be tasty [Stative]
ukwy'sh' -- twigs, branches
u- NsP/X, -kwy- twig, branch, - Linker Vowel, -'- Noun Suffix, -sh' Plural suffix
hsnya't -- you will boil water
hse- Future + 2sA/X prefixes, -nya't boil water [Simple]
neka'tai -- tea (Lit. "hot water")
- NsP/L, -nek- water, liquid, -a'tai be hot [Stative]
tks -- really, indeed
t' -- what?, how?
kaya'takhas -- it helps, cures it
ka- NsA/C prefix, -ya'takhas help, cure [Habitual]
na'u't -- what
ahs' -- else
ha'tekakt -- it is necessary, it must be
ha'teka- Translocative + Dualic + NsA/X prefixes, -kt render (?) [Stative]
uhw't -- sprout
u- NsP/C prefix, -hw'- sprout, -t stand [Stative]
ne' -- [particle]
akt -- I mean
ak- 1sP/I prefix, -t mean, indicate [Stative]
ne -- [particle]
uhw'as' -- new sprouts, young shoots
u- NsP/C prefix, -hw'- sprout, -as' be new, young [Stative]
hsku' -- you will take it
hse- Future + 2sA/X prefixes, -ku' take something [Simple]. Note: The Simple stem of "take something" -ku' makes a preceding vowel long.
khu -- and
w -- I think
auska'a -- only
ukte' -- root
u- NsP/X prefix, -kte- root, -- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
hsi' -- you will say
hs- Future + 2sA/I prefixes, -i' say something [Simple].
kwe'wkh' -- Mingo language
kwe- man, person, -'we- be real, genuine, -kh' Characterizer suffix
n -- [particle]
knikh -- I forgot
k- Factual + 1sP/C prefixes, -nikh forget [Simple]
kye't -- I will use it
k- Future + 1sA/C prefixes, -yeæ''t use something [Simple]
ha'ty -- everything
ha'tey- Translocative + Dualic + NsA/O prefixes, - be an amount [Stative]
atnsh' -- mayapple
atnush- mayapple, -- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
tyaw' -- always
ks -- over and over
kyhsa' -- I will make a bandage
k- Future + 1sA/C prefixes, -yhsa' make a bandage [Simple]
unhta'sh' -- leaves
u- NsA/C prefix, -nht- leaf, -a- Linker Vowel, -'- Noun Suffix, -sh' Plural suffix
usth -- a little bit
u- NsP/X prefix, -sth be small, little, not much [Stative]
snhkwa'sh'k -- you will eat the medicine
s- Future + 2sA/C prefixes, -nhkwa'sh- medicine, -- Linker Vowel, -k eat [Simple] Note that the Simple stem of the verb "eat" -k causes the preceding vowel to lengthen (// to //)
kwhe -- but, however
te'aknht' -- I don't know
te'ak- Negative + 1sP/ prefixes, nht' know something [Stative]
uya'takh -- it cures it
u- NsP/C prefix, -ya'takh help, cure something [Stative]
tykwa -- if
-- I have a wort
ak- 1sP/C prefix, -nhi't- wort, -t something be attached to something [Stative]
-- or
akekn' -- I have a mole
ake- 1sP/X prefix, -kn' have a mole [Stative]
knhtaku' -- I will take the leaf
k- Future + 1sA/C, -nht- leaf, -a- Linker Vowel, -ku' take something [Simple]
uthkw'tt -- broad-leafed arrowhead
[u]- NsP/A, -athkw't- arrowhead, -t something be attached to something [Stative] (Lit. "it has an arrowhead attached to it")
katath' -- I will cut myself
k- Future + 1sA/A prefixes, -atath' cut yourself [Simple]
unhta' -- leaf
u- NsP/C prefix, -nht- leaf, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
ntsye't -- how you will use it
nts- Partitive + Future + 2sA/Y, -ye't use something [Simple]
kw'kny' uhtahkwa' -- yellow ladyslipper
kw'kny' whippoorwill; [u]- NsP/A prefix, -ahtahkw- shoe, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix (Lit. "whippoorwill's shoe")
kanyu' -- when
uhtak -- after
aw'sh' -- flowers, blooms
aw- flower, -- Linker Vowel, -'- Noun Suffix, -sh' Plural suffix
kanhtaikh -- green
ka- NsA/C prefix, -nht- leaf, -a- Linker Vowel, -ikh bite, envelope [Stative]
n -- now, now then
uh -- it is dry
u- NsP/C prefix, -h be dry [Stative]
kethe't -- I will pound it
ke- Future + 1sA/X prefixes, -the't pound something [Simple]
sh -- just, only
tsyya' -- you will make a bandage
ts- Future + 2sA/Y pefixes, -yya' make a bandage [Simple]
u'nya' -- bone, joint
u- NsP/C prefix, -'ny- bone, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Noun Suffix
unkte' -- it hurts, it's painful
u- NsP/C prefix, -nkte' hurt, be sore [Stative]

TM/JL 4-17-96