The Mingo Salamander, so called for having been tried in the fire and found vaunting.

Thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke

At the Restaurant
1. Unhtsi thsikwe'ts' akst ne tnyatnt', wnyahtti' ne hw'ni khu tniyash tnyat.
Long ago when my grandmother's cousin was a young man, he and his father set out on a trip together.

2. We n kantak heunn, ktanhkwi hnihse'.
They went away up the valley on horseback.

3. Ne' twnishtnyk ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke te'a te'aaytekhni' te'sk' kwe'we.
In those days no Indians were allowed to eat in restaurants.

4. Ne' ne hun' ki'sh' te'sk' te'aawtiyt', ne' s' ne we thatinke'.
They figured maybe nobody would recognize them so far from home.

5. Ne' tkaini hun' thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke anyatekhnyne'.
That's why they decided to go and eat in a restaurant.

6. Te'wt n-akst tnyatnt' teutekhnn' ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke.
My grandmother's cousin had never eaten in a restaurant before.

7. Shawyat', "Na'u't aasneke'?", shakhs na'u't ti'kwa te'kanu' aatynek'.
When she asked him what he would drink, he told her just whatever was easiest for her.

8. "Na'u't hsneke', nekatsi', neka'tai, un'kwa', k utsiyaki', na'u't hsneke'?" sa'k'.
She said again, "What do you want to drink, coffee, tea, milk, or juice?"

9. Wahsthu' ne hu'ni.
His father kicked him.

10. "Na'u't niyu't?" wa'. "Usth ks tkahathek."
"What's the matter?" he said. "I'm just being polite."

11. Ne' kw ne hu'n waashni't ne' aawtiyt' ne' hnkwe'we.
But his father was afraid she would recognize them for being Indians.

12. "nekatsi' neke'," wa' sh.
"He'll take coffee," is all he said.


Glossary

(1) Unhtsi thsikwe'ts' akst ne tnyatnt', wnyahtti' ne hw'ni khu tniyash tnyat.
Long ago when my grandmother's cousin was a young man, he and his father set out on a trip together.

unhtsi -- long ago
un- now, at that time, -htsi Intensifier suffix
thsikwe'ts' -- when he was a young man
thsi- Coincidental prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -kwe't- person, -ase- be new [Basic Stative]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
akst -- my grandmother
ne tnyatnt' -- they two are cousins
wnyahtti' -- those two guys went
wa- Factual prefix, -ny- MdA/A prefix, -ahtty- go [Simple Factual]. Note that the MdA/A prefix -ny- makes the preceding vowel long.
ne hw'ni -- his father
khu -- and
tniyash -- the two of them are a pair
te- Dualic prefix, -ni- MdA/C prefix, te...yashe- be a pair [Basic Stative]. Note that the MdA/C prefix -ni- makes the preceding vowel long.
tnyat -- the two of them together
te- Dualic prefix, -ny- MdA/A, te...ati- two people be together [Basic Stative]. Note that the MdA/A prefix -ny- makes the preceding vowel long.

(2) We n kantak heunn, ktanhkwi hnihse'.
They went away up the valley on horseback.

we -- far away
n -- probably
kantak -- in the valley
ka- NsA prefix, -nt- mountain, -a- Linker Vowel, -k Internal Locative Suffix. Literally, "inside/under the mountain".
heunn -- they went away there
he- Transloactaive prefix, -hun- MpP/E prefix, he...en- go away there [Basic Stative].
ktanhkwi -- horse
k[]- NsA/I prefix, -yt- log, -a- Linker Vowel, -nhkwi- haul, carry something away [Basic Habitual]. Literally "it hauls logs".
hnihse' -- two guys are riding horseback
hni- MdA/X prefix, -hs- ride horseback [Basic Imperfective].

(3) Ne' twnishtnyk ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke te'a te'aaytekhni' te'sk' kwe'we.
In those days no Indians were allowed to eat in restaurants.

ne' twnishtnyk -- in those days
t- Cislocative prefix, -w- NsA/ prefix, -nish- day, -- Linker Vowel, -teny- be around [Habitual Past]
ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke -- in/at the restaurant
t- Cislocative prefix, -hn- MpA prefix, -ate- Middle prefix, -khw- food -ny- make, -a- Linker Vowel, -'t- Causative suffix, -a- Linker Vowel, -hkw- Instrumental suffix, -a'- Habitual, -ke External Locative Suffix
te'a -- it is not possible
te'aaytekhni' -- people cannot eat
te'- Negative prefix, -aa- Optative prefix, -y[]- FsA/A prefix, -atekhny- have a meal [Simple Optative].
te'sk' -- no one, nobody
te'- Negative prefix, sk' someone, anyone
kwe'we -- Indian, Native American
kwe- person, -'we Authenticator suffix. Lit. "real person"

(4) Ne' ne hun' ki'sh' te'sk' te'aawyt', ne' s' ne we thatinke'.
They figured maybe nobody would recognize them so far from home.

ne' ne hun' -- they figured, decided
hun- MpP/E prefix, -e'- decide, figure [Basic Stative].
ki'sh' -- perhaps, maybe
te'sk' -- no one, nobody
te'- Negative prefix, sk' someone, anyone
te'aawtiyt' -- they would not know them
te'- Negative prefix, -aa- Optative prefix, -hwti- 3p/Mp/C prefix, -yte- know, be aware of [Simple]. Note that the h of the 3p/Mp/C prefix is weak, and so is dropped out when it comes between two vowels.
ne' s' -- because, since
ne we -- far away
thatinke' -- they live there
t- Cislocative prefix, -hati- MpA/C prefix, t...nk- live somewhere [Basic Stative]

(5) Ne' tkaini hun' thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke anyatekhnyne'.
That's why they decided to go and eat in a restaurant.

ne' tkaini -- that's why
t- Cislocative prefix, -ka- NsA/C prefix, -iny- make the matter [Basic Habitual].
ne' ne hun' -- they figured, decided
hun- MpP/E prefix, -e'- decide, figure [Basic Stative].
ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke -- in/at the restaurant
t- Cislocative prefix, -hn- MpA prefix, -ate- Middle prefix, -khw- food -ny- make, -a- Linker Vowel, -'t- Causative suffix, -a- Linker Vowel, -hkw- Instrumental suffix, -a'- Habitual, -ke External Locative Suffix
anyatekhnyne' -- the two guys would go to eat
aa- Optative prefix, -ny- MdA/A prefix, -atekhnyn- go to eat [Optative Imperfective]. Note that the MdA/A prefix -ny- makes the preceding vowel long.

(6) Te'wt n-akst tnyatnt' teutekhnn' ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke.
My grandmother's cousin had never eaten in a restaurant before.

te'wt -- never, at no time
te'- Negative prefix, wt when
n-akst -- my grandmother
tnyatnt' -- they two are cousins
te- Dualic prefix, -ny- MdA/A prefix, te...atnte- be cousins [Basic Stative]. Note that the MdA/A prefix -ny- makes the preceding vowel long.
teutekhnn' -- he had not eaten
te- Negative prefix, -h[u]- MsP/A prefix, -atekhny- have a meal [Stative Past].
ne thntekhnya'tahkwa'ke -- in/at the restaurant
t- Cislocative prefix, -hn- MpA prefix, -ate- Middle prefix, -khw- food -ny- make, -a- Linker Vowel, -'t- Causative suffix, -a- Linker Vowel, -hkw- Instrumental suffix, -a'- Habitual, -ke External Locative Suffix

(7) Shawyat', "Na'u't aasneke'?", shakhs na'u't ti'kwa te'kanu' aatynek'.
When she asked him what he would drink, he told her just whatever was easiest for her.

shawyat' -- when she asked him
sh- Coincident prefix, -a- Factual prefix, -hwy- Fs/Ms/A prefix, -at- ask [Simple Factual]
na'u't aasnek' -- what you would drink
na'u't what, what kind of thing, aa- Optative prefix, -s- 2sA/L prefix, -neke- drink [Simple Optative].
shakhs -- he answered back to her
shak- Ms/Fs/ prefix, -hse- say to someone [Basic Stative]
na'u't ti'kwa -- whatever
na'u't what, what kind of thing, ti'kwa whether, if
te'kanu' -- it is not hard, expensive
te'- Negative prefix, -ka- NsA/C prefix, -nu- be hard, expensive [Basic Stative]
aatynek' -- she would bring the drink
aa- Optative prefix, -t- Cislocative prefix, -y- FsA/L prefix, -nek- drink, t...- bring something [Simple Optative]

(8) "Na'u't hsneke', nekatsi', neka'tai, un'kwa', k utsiyaki', na'u't hsneke'?" sa'k'.
She said again, "What do you want to drink, coffee, tea, milk, or juice?"

na'u't hsneke' -- what you will drink
na'u't what, what kind of thing, - Future prefix, -hs- 2sA/L prefix, -neke- drink [Simple Future]
nekatsi' -- coffee
- NsP/L prefix, -nek- drink, -atsi- be dark [Basic Stative]. Lit. "dark water, dark drink"
neka'tai -- tea
- NsP/L prefix, -nek- drink, - a'tai- be warm, hot [Basic Stative]
un'kwa' -- milk
u- NsP/C prefix, -n'kw- milk, -a- Linker Vowel, -' Basic Noun Suffix
k -- or
utsyaki' -- juice
u- NsP/X prefix, -tsy- fruit, -a- Linker Vowel, -ki- be a liquid [Basic Stative]
na'u't hsneke' -- what you will drink
na'u't what, what kind of thing, - Future prefix, -hs- 2sA/L prefix, -neke- drink [Simple Future]
sa'k' -- she said it again
s- Repetitive prefix, -a'- Factual prefix, -ak- FsA/ prefix, -- say [Simple Factual]

(9) Wahsthu' ne hu'ni.
His father kicked him.

wahsthu' -- he kicked, he gave a kick
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -hsthw- kick [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
ne hu'ni -- his father

(10) "Na'u't niyu't?" wa'. "Usth ks tkahathek."
"What's the matter?" he said. "I'm just being polite."

na'u't niyu't? -- what's the matter?
na'u't such, what, niyu't it's that kind of thing
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
usth -- just a little
u- NsP/X prefix, -sth- be little, small [Basic Stative].
ks -- often, frequently
tkahathek -- it will keep becoming light
t- Dualic + Future prefixes, -ka- NsA prefix, te...hathe- it becomes light out [Future Habitual]. [Idiomatic expression, to be a little polite]

(11) Ne' kw ne hu'ni waashni't ne' aawtiyt' ne' hnkwe'we.
But his father was afraid she would recognize them for being Indians.

ne' -- [sentential particle]
kw -- but, however
ne hu'ni -- his father
waashani't -- he was afraid
wa- Factual prefix, -ha- MsA/X prefix, -shni'- be afraid of something [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/X prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
ne' -- [sentential particle]
aawyt' -- she would know, recognize them
aa- Optative prefix, -hwti- Fs/Mp/C prefix, -yte- know, recognize someone [Simple Optative]. Note that the -h- of the Fs/Ms/C prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
ne' -- [sentential particle]
hnkwe'we -- they (masc) are Indians
hn- MpA/ prefix, -kwe'we. Indian, Native American.

(12) "nekatsi' neke'", wa' sh.
"He'll take coffee", is all he said.

nekatsi' -- coffee
- NsP/L prefix, -nek- water, liquid, -atsi- be dark [Basic Stative]. Literally "dark water, dark liquid".
neke' -- he will drink
- Future prefix, -h- MsA/L prefix, -neke- drink something [Simple Future]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/L prefix is weak, and so is droppeed out when it woul come between two vowels. Note then that the -- comes immediately after --. The -- is changed into -- due to the rule of Contagious Vowel Nasalization.
wa' -- he said
wa- Factual prefix, -h- MsA/ prefix, -- say something [Simple Factual]. Note that the -h- of the MsA/ prefix is weak, and so it is dropped out when it would come between two vowels.
sh - just, only

Index of Mingo Texts