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N-oiwiyostsh' ne Thsakahtas he nioy hyt' ne Matthew

The Beautiful Message of Christ as written by Matthew.
N-uiwiyustsh' means "the Gospel". The consonants here are all pronounced as in English. Every second vowel is stressed, with the most stress on the u in the middle of the word. The u is pronounced like the oo in wood, the i like the i in it, the like the o in on, the like the a in hat. There is a consonant at the end, /'/, called the "glottal stop". It is very important to pronounce it carefully. It is heard in English in the middle of uh-oh, a sort of catch in the throat. Finally s and h are pronounced separately as in grass hut, not as in shoe.

Any word beginning with n- is contracted from ne, pronounced almost like the ne in neck. Ne is a connecting particle. It connects a subordinate word to the main word in a clause. U at the beginning of a word usually means "it". But most words must have at least three parts: a pronoun beginning, a base middle, and a suffix or ending. U is a common, neutral beginning for a word.

There are two bases in the word uiwiyustsh' or "gospel". The first base occurs alone as uiwa', which means "word, thing, message, custom or matter". Compare uiwa' to uiwiyustsh' and try to find what is common to both. The second base in uiwiyustsh' or "gospel" occurs alone for example in wy. This word begins with another neuter pronoun w- (as opposed to u-) and has vowels which are pronounced twice as long as those in gospel. The long vowels are indicated by acute accent marks (here, , ). This word means "(it is) good, great", or "beautiful". Compare wy to uiwiyustsh' and see if you can find the common base. Notice how words are run together in Mingo.

There is some explaining to do at the end of uiwiyustsh' or "gospel". Look at the end of the word uwiyust, which means "it has made it beautiful". The ending means "to cause to be". See if you can find the same ending in uiwiyustsh'. You will notice that there is something extra also. This is a common ending which indicates permanency. English-speakers will immediately think that it turns a verb into a noun. If we take the ending off, we are left with uiwiyust, which means "it has made it a beautiful" or "good message". If we add the ending again, we have uiwiyustsh', "that which has made it a beautiful message", or "gospel".

The phrase ne Thsakahtas means "Christ". The first part, ths, is pronounced like t's in that's a good deal. The first a is almost like the u in hug. The k before a vowel (or even w and y) is pronounced very softly, like the g in hug. The a is pronounced like the southern drawl Aon an apple, for I want an apple. The htas is almost like hate us spoken quickly in American English, but without the diphthong character of the long a: it is somehere between hate us and het us. The t before a vowel (and even w and y) sounds like a d, just as it does between vowels in American English.

The word Thsakahtas has only one base. It occurs alone in the word yhe', which means "life". See if you can find the common base in both yhe' or "life" and Thsakahtas or "Christ". What comes before he is a prefix and what comes after is a suffix. The suffix is another one meaning "to make to be". The very beginning of the word means again. The pronoun part means "he does something to them". Altogether the word means "he makes them be alive again", or "Christ".

The phrase he niuy comes next. It is pronounced like Hey knee Oh yeh! Ann, without the n at the end, and with pure, single vowels. The final vowel is a nasal, like the one we have already seen, .

The particle he often acts just like the particle ne. At other times it may mean "where".

Look at the word aky, which means "I have done it". It is pronounced Ugh! Yeh! Ann! without the final n, and with pure, single vowels. We can change "I" to "he" by changing ak to hu. Then we have huy, "he has done it". The prefix ni means "what" or "how". In Mingo parts of words are run together. That is why we drop the h. Then we have niuy, "what he has done" or "how he has done it". We do not have prepositions in Mingo, just complex words (with at least three parts) and particles. So we use this word where we might use the English preposition "by".

The pronunciation of hyt' or "he has written it", is something like ho! Yah Don't, without the final t, don't pronounced as in the South, such as in Don't go! Compare it to the word kyatsh' in Verse One, which means "book", or "that which is written". You already know how to change a prefix to "he". In fact, hyatsh' means "his book". You recognize the ending from uiwiyustsh', "gospel". Turn the noun meaning "his book" into the verb meaning "he has written it" by removing the ending from hyatsh'. The a becomes long because it is the second syllable from the end: hyt'. You saw that happen with yhe' and Thsakahtas, where the e became long .


Uiwa' Skt

Chapter One
We have already seen uiwa', but here it means "chapter". But look at the word for one, skt. It is pronounced like the end of bless God. It is a verb made up of at least three parts. The final t means "to stand". You can see it in many words: tht (pronounced like the end of be Todd) "he is standing there". The pronoun is the same one that occurs at the beginning of "book", kyatsh' or "it is written", kyt'. The s is a different form of the prefix beginning Thsakahtas, "Christ", meaning "again" or "back". Altogether it means "one", or more accurately, "it is standing again".
1. Ne' ne kyatsh' ne wathywi ne takwatsiyttye' ne'hu hunkt ne Jesus Christ, ne huwak ne David, ne' huwak ne Abraham.

What is written here tells the family tree in which was born Jesus Christ, who is David's son and Abraham's son.

Ne' is pronounced like the nate in innate growl, with no t sound at the end. It often begins a sentence and means "so" or "so this". In the middle of a sentence it can mean "which", "who" or "that".

Ne kyatsh' is explained above.

Ne wathywi means "it tells". The end is pronounced like we in we have. The beginning is pronounced like what do you, all run together as what'you. You will hear a ch sound when you pronounce it correctly. The prefix is the same as in wy above. By changing it you get hathywi, "he tells". Change it again and you get sathywi, "you tell"; or kathywi, "I tell". "She tells" is tricky. You need a nasal vowel for that: ythywi, "she tells".

Ne takwatsiyttye' means "family tree". This phrase has many letters that normally run together in pronunciation. The combination tsi is like Gee! The combination ty is like an English j. The other k's and t's are before vowels and so very soft (voiced), like the d and g of dug. Remember to stress every second vowel. The long is always like the a in father, the like the a in hat, and the rest of the a's in this word like the u in dug. Remember the glottal stop at the end.

Now we can find what the base is and what are the prefixes and suffixes in this word takwatsiyttye', "family tree". Kyt' means "it is written". Kyattye' means "it is written along". Hwatsy' means "his family". We have already seen the causative meaning at the end of Thsakahtas "Christ", and it comes up here again before tye'. We know that tak must be the prefix. Kwatsy' means "family". Takwatsiyttye' means "it caused it to be a family along", or "family tree".

Ne'hu means "there" or "that". It is, along with ne', a disjunctive particle, while ne and he are conjunctive particles.

Hunkt means "he has been born". Every second vowel is stressed, and the k and t are voiced, like g and d. Hunke' means "he lives (there)". The is just a long . . By adding the causative ending we get hunkt, he has been born.

Huwak (pronounced ho ah wuk) means "his son". Try to find the stable base in the following similar words: khewak, "my daughter", "my children"; hewak, "my son"; shewak, "your son"; shakuawak, "his daughter"; yawak "he has you as his child". You will find this last word in verse 20.

Study Guide to Matthew 1:1


2. Abraham hute'ts' ne Isaac; Isaac hute'ts' ne Jacub: Jacub hute'ts' ne Judas khu ne tentnt'.

Abraham was father to Isaac, and Isaac was father to Jacob, and Jacob was father to Judas and his brothers.

The word hute'ts' has one peculiarity of pronunciation. You have to be careful to get the two glottal stops right. The second one is tricky: it comes after the s. The word is translated as "he begot". The prefix is already familiar from huwak "his son", hunkt "he has been born", and hyt' "he has written".

Where does the base end and the suffix begin, and what does the suffix mean? Let's look at another word with the same base, waute't'. Here there is an additional prefix, wa, the Factual, and a different suffix lengthening the and adding a glottal stop. This also means "he begot". The Factual always refers to one specific event. What does the suffix s' mean? It is also a past, but does not specifically mean one particular event as such, but rather emphasizes that something has already or finally happened. Let's put s' on some other words: hyats', "he has already written it"; hunktas', "he was finally born"; huthyuwis', "he has already told about it"; huyes', "he has finally done it".

The word "and", joining two words or phrases, in a sentence, is khu. It is pronounced more or less like Coe, but with a single vowel.

Ne tentnt' has some peculiarities of pronunciation. The last three vowels are all long. All of the t's are pronounced like d's. Remember the nasal vowels. Except for the first and last e, all the vowels are spoken through the nose. The word is approximately day Ann on Dan on day, the day at the end cut off with a glottal stop.

The word tentnt' means "they are brothers/sisters". We can change the prefix to form other words: teyaknyatnt', "(s/he is) my brother or sister"; tehnyatnt' "(you are) my brother or sister"; tnyatnt', "brother and sister, or two brothers"; teknyatnt', "two sisters"; tesnyatnt', "both of you brothers or sisters"; teyakwatnt', "(they are) my brothers and sisters"; tetwatnt', "(you are) my brothers and sisters"; teswatnt', "your brothers and sisters"; tewntnt', "sisters". From the last example you can see that the beginning a of the base becomes nasalized to after an n, just as in our first example.


3. Judas hute'ts' ne Phares, khu ne Zara, n-wtiwak ne Thamar; Phares hute'ts' ne Esrum; Esrum hute'ts' ne Aram;

Judas was father to Phares and Zara, the children of Thamar; Phares was father to Esrom; Esrom was father to Aram;

The word hwtiwak has two nasal vowels at the beginning. Be sure to stress every other vowel, beginning with the second. This word means "her children". It differs from huwak only in the prefix.


4. Aram hute'ts' ne Aminadab; Aminadab hute'ts' ne Naassun; Naassun hute'ts' ne Salmun;

Aram was father to Aminadab; Aminadab was father to Naasson, and Naasson was father to Salmon;


5. Salmun hute'ts' ne Buuz, ne Rachab hwwak; Buuz hute'ts' ne Ubed, ne' ne Ruth hwte't'; Ubed hute'ts' ne Jesse.

Salmon was father to Booz, to whom Rachab gave birth; Booz was the father of Obed, to whom Ruth gave birth; Obed was the father of Jesse;

The word hwwak means "her son". The first a of the base has become nasalized to under the influence of the prefix. It also becomes short, because of its position. It is always good to learn a word with a longer and shorter prefix to change the even- odd sequence of vowels. Then the pattern of each word becomes clear.


6. Jesse hute'ts' ne David, ne kuwhkw; David ne kuwhkw hute'ts' ne Sulumun, ne' n-wwak (ne yu') ne Urias ya' tyuk';

Jesse was the father of David the king; David the king was the father of Solomon by the former wife of Urias;

The word kuwhkw means "king". The ending means "great" or "big" and can be added to almost any word, as kyatshkw, "big book". The word kuwhkw is exceptionally stressed on the first syllable. That is because the pronoun is missing. You can say hukuwhkw, which means "(he is) king". You can even change the pronoun and say yekuwhkw, which means "(she is) queen".

The word n-wwak is a mistake. It should probably read ne yu', "spouse".

The word ya' means "first".

The word tyuk' has the j sound in the beginning, and two nasal vowels and a glottal stop at the end. The base has been swallowed up by the prefixes and suffix. The prefixes are tyo- meaning "here it", and the suffix means "it used to be". The two words, ya' and tyuk', together mean "formerly".

Look at these other words with the same suffix: tesnyatntek', "your dead brother or sister"; kuwhkuwak', "the former king"; heawak k', "my dead son"; khwatsiyk', "my former family"; kyatshk', "the earlier writing".


7. Sulumun hute'ts' ne Rubuam; Rubuam hute'ts' ne Abia; Abia hute'ts' ne Asa.

Solomon was the father of Roboam; Roboam was the father of Abia; Abia was the father of Asa;


8. Asa hute'ts' ne Jusaphat; Jusaphat hute'ts' ne Juram; Juram hute'ts' ne Uzias;

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;


9. Uzias hute'ts' ne Juatham; Juatham hute'ts' ne Achaz; Achaz hute'ts' ne Ezechias;

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;


10. Ezechias hute'ts' ne Manasses; Manasses hute'ts' ne Amun; Amun hute'ts' ne Jusias.

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;

Study Guide to Matthew 1:2-10


11. Jusias hute'ts' ne Jechunias, khu ne tentnt', ne' huwe thsikaawi's ne' shawti' ne Babylun.

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;

Ne' huwe means "over there" or "until".

The word thsikaawi's means "at the same time as the carrying". Be careful to get the glottal stop before the s at the end. The beginning sounds like chee in cheese. The k is pronounced, as usual before a vowel, like the g in guess. The pronoun is already familiar. The prefix before it means "at the same time as" or "when".

Look at these other familiar words with same prefix: thsiute't', "when he begot him"; thsiyat', "when he had written it"; thsiuy, "when he had done it"; thsiunkt, "when he was born".

The word shawti' means "when they took them". Be careful to separate the s from the h even at the beginning of a word, as in grass-hut. Look at the word hwtiwak again. It means "her children". The pronoun means "she or they do something to them". This pronoun is in the word shawti' as well. This is a combination of two familiar prefixes, the first as in thsiuy, "when he had done it", and the second as in waute't', "he begot".

Study Guide to Matthew 1:11


12. Ne' n-n ne'hu thsiwtiya'th Babylun, Jechunias waute't' ne Salathiel; Salathiel hute'ts' ne Zurubabel;

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;

Ne' n-n means "now, then, already, when".

The word thsiwtiya'th means when they had brought them to that point. The prefix is long, but it is all familiar. The base is new, and appears in the following word: huya'th, which means "he has brought it to there", or "it has gotten to him", or "it is his turn". We have already seen once how to change "he" to "I": akya'th means "it's my turn". Saya'th means "it's your turn".

Study Guide to Matthew 1:12


13. Zurubabel hute'ts' ne Abiud; Abiud hute'ts' ne Eliakim; Eliakim hute'ts' ne Azur;

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;


14. Azur hute'ts' ne Saduc; Saduc hute'ts' ne Achim; Achim hute'ts' ne Eliud;

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;


15. Eliud hute'ts' ne Eleazar; Eleazar hute'ts' ne Matthan; Matthan hute'ts' ne Jacub.

Asa was the father of Josaphat; Josaphat was the father of Joram; Joram was the father of Ozias;


16. Jacub hute'ts' ne Juseph ne yu' ne Mary, ne' hwte't' ne Jesus, ne' Christ hwyast.

Jacob was father to Joseph the husband of Mary, who gave birth to Jesus, who was called Christ.

The word hwyast means "they have called him". The prefix is familiar from hwte't', "she has given birth to him". We have seen the ending already, t, in the word hunkt, "he was born". See how the base occurs in other words: kys, "my name is"; sys, "your name is"; hays, "his name is"; yeys, "her name is"; kays, "it is called". Notice how we change the word hwyast to make the word hayst, which means "he has called it". From hayst, "he has called it", we can make yeyst, "she has called it". What does kyst mean? By changing the ending of hayst, "he has called it", we can make haystha', "he calls it".

Study Guide to Matthew 1:13-16


17. T ne' ne kakwk he niywatsiynt, tyuhs' ne Abraham khu he niywe' ne David, wash ke ska' niywatsiynt; ne'hu, tetyuhs' ne David, khu he niywe' ne Babylun ke shawti', wash ke ska' niywatsiynt: ne'hu, khu, tetyuhs' ne' shawti' ne Babylun, khu he niywe' ne Christ, wash ke ska' niywatsiynt.

So all the generations starting with Abraham up until David come to the number of fourteen generations; then starting again with David up until the exile in Babylon make fourteen generations: then starting with the exile to Babylon and going up to Christ, there are fourteen generations.

The word t means "and". It is a sentence connective particle. That is, it joins a sentence to the previous one.

The word kakwk means "all". Remember that k is pronounced like the g in guess before both vowels and w and y. This word is pronounced more or less like guh gwey gon without the final n. Since we know that the prefix is ka, we are able to add other bases to this word: kyatshkwk, "the whole book"; kwatsiykwk, "the whole family"; uiwiyustshkwk, "the whole gospel".

The word niywatsiynt means "how many generations". You can see the word "family" in it, kwatsy'. The prefix is made up of two parts. The first is the same as niuy, "he has done it". The second, the pronoun, is the same as the one in uiwa'. The end of the word is another base meaning "add to", as in yatshnt, "an extra curtain". The words "book" and "curtain" happen to be the same. The word for generations is watsiynt, "families added".

We already know the word tyuk'. There is the same prefix in tyuhs', which means "it has begun with". Uhs' means "it has begun". We know how to change o to ho and make huhs', "he has begun". The prefixes are eating part of the base, which only appears when we change the prefix to "I" or "you": akahs', "I have begun"; sahs', "you have begun". We can add a prefix to make tetyuhs', which means "it has again begun with".

The word niywe' means "until" or "how far". We already know the prefix from niywatsiynt.

The words wash ke ska' mean "fourteen". The word wash means "ten". Notice the long nasal vowel at the end. We can make "twenty" by adding the same prefix we added to tyuhs' to make "tetyohs'": tewash means "twenty". The word ke means "four". In the word ska' we have the same prefixes as in skt, "one". If we replace the base meaning "to be standing" with another meaning "to put it on it", we get ska', which means "it has put it on it again". In all, wash ke ska' means "fourteen: ten put four on it again".

Study Guide to Matthew 1:17


18. T ne', ti, ne shankt ne Jesus Christ, nta niyaw'; ne' n-unu' Mary thsiuntiwihsa' nutinyk ne Juseph, ahs', sh, ta'teunti'he', tateka'ys' he te'tsakuya'tuska'a, ne' ne'hu niyuye N-uthwaishtukhti'.

Now when Jesus Christ was born, this is what happened. When his mother Mary and Joseph had already decided to get married, they still had not got together, it turned out she was pregnant by the Holy Spirit.

The word ti, pronounced Dee, means "and", "then", "what about".

The word nta is pronounced Nan-da. It means "this" and is a demonstrative pronoun, as in this is something. If you need a demonstrative adjective this, as in this book, you must say nk kyatsh'.

The word niyaw' means "how it has happened" or "what has happened". The prefix is in a slightly different form from the one in niywatsiynt, "how many generations".

The word shankt, "when he was born", is closely related to hunkt', "he has been born". Notice how the word changes to make "you have been born", snkt and "I have been born", aknkt. The prefix is already familiar from shawti', "when they took them". We can remove the first prefix and say wankt, "he was born".

The word for "mother" is tricky and has some irregular forms. This phrase, ne hunu', means "his mother". Unexpectedly, "her mother" is unu'. You might guess that sanu' is "your mother", but "my mother" is the irregular nu'y. "Our mother" is ethinu', using a prefix we have not yet seen.

There are at least two things in this long word thsiuntiwihsa' which may be familiar. The first is the prefix, the same as in thsiwtiya'th, "when they had brought them to that point". Look back at the explanation of verse 11 to find other examples. The second familiar thing is the base from uiwa' that we saw in uiwiyustsh', "gospel". There are many bases that can be added to uiwa' to get new meanings and this is one of them. This base occurs without uiwa' in utawihsa', "it has ripened". Putting them together, it means "to decide". Thsiuntiwihsa' means "when they had decided". Be sure to pronounce the h and s near the end of the word separately and distinctly.

The word nutinyk means "how they will get married". We can change the prefixes a little at a time. Wautinyk means "they got married. Notice how the word changes again to make waunyk, "he got married". We can change nutinyk to nautinyk, "how they got married".

The word ahs' means "still" or "yet". It is followed here by another particle, sh, which means "just". You must pronounce the s and h separately and distinctly, or it will sound like s, which means "who".

The word ta'teunti'he' means "they have not come together", or "have not gotten married". The first prefix is the same as the beginning of tewash, "twenty". It takes a different form to distinguish it from the Negative. An example of the Negative is at the beginning of teuy, "he has not done it". The pronoun here is like that in thsiuntiwihsa', "when they had decided". Another word with the same ending is uwiyu'he', "it has become good". The base that is left appears with uiwa' as uiw, "it's all of the matter, enough". Let's replace the pronoun: ta'teykwati'he', "we have not come together, have not gotten married"; ta'teswati'he', "you have not come together".

The word tateka'ys' means "it has already come to light for her". The ending is already known from hute'ts', "he has already begotten". The base appears as: huka'y', "he has perceived it"; haka'y', "he perceives it"; waaka'y', "he perceived it".

The word te'tsakuya'tuska'a means "she is pregnant", literally, "it is no longer just her body". The word auska'a means "only". Kaya'ta' means "body".

The word niyuy means "by, how it has done it". It differs only in the pronoun from niuy, "how he has done it". If we take off ni, we have uy, "it has done it".

N-uthwaishtukhti' is contracted from ne Huthwaishtukhti', which means "the Holy Spirit". Huthwaish' means "his spirit". Katk means "it's exact, a specific one, the same one".

Study Guide to Matthew 1:18


19. Ne', ti, ne Juseph, ne yu', he tkaiwayi' nikwe'tu't, he th' teukays naashakuhsnetkt n-kwne, haw', utahseht'ke skheyatka', tkhyatsy' he skheyatka'.

Now then Joseph, her husband, was the kind of person to do the right thing, he was not willing to ruin her reputation in the community, he decided to break off the engagement and give her a written divorce in secret.

The word tkaiwayi' means "it is virtuous". Be sure to pronounce the t at the beginning of the word as close together with the k as possible. Tkaiwayi' contains the base of uiwa'. The other base is found for example in tkayi', "really, in fact". With the negative te'tkayi', "not at all". Ha'tekayi' means "enough".

Nikwe'tu't means "what kind of person he is". Its bases are also found in kwe, "people"; and hkwe, "man". N-kwne means "among the people". Hkwe'ty means "a good man". Niyu't means "what it is like". Nikyatsyu't means "what kind of book it is". The sy in Mingo is pronounced almost like the sh in English, but with a y sound after it, as in fresh yeast. Nikaya'tu't means "what kind of picture it is", while niaya'tu't means "what his body is like".

The word th' means "no, not". Do not pronounce the th as in English. The t and h are pronounced separately, like a t at the beginning of an English word pronounced with emphasis, such as tire.

The word teukays means "he is not a willing sort of person". Hukys means "he is a willing sort of person". Waukay means "he consented". Hukay' means "he is willing". Hukays' means "he has already consented". We can change the pronoun as well. Akekay' means "I am willing". Te'akekay' means "I am not willing".

The word naashakuhsnetkt means "how he might ruin her reputation". Nykunkt means "how she will be born", while naayakunkt means "how she might be born". In the same way, "how he will ruin her reputation" is nshakuhsntkt. Notice the lengthening of e as it changes from an odd to an even position. Huhsn' means "his name or reputation". Watk' means "bad or ugly". U'watkt means "it made it bad or ugly".

The word haw' means "he has decided". "I have decided" is ak'. Notice how the form of the pronoun is different from huy and huntt. We saw a similar difference in niyaw'. Other forms are wa'', "he decided it"; and he'', "he decides it".

The word utahseht'ke means "in secret". The ending means "in", as in uiwa'ke, "in the chapter". The same base is in akatahseht, "I've hidden myself"; katahsetha', "I hide"; waatahset, "he hid himself"; hutahsehtas', "I've already hidden myself". We shorten the base to hide something else: akahseht, "I've hidden it"; hahsetha', "he hides it"; waahset, "he hid it"; huhsehtas', "he's finally hidden it". We can add other bases to it as well: hyatshhseht, "he has hidden the book".

The word skheyatka' means "I will release her". The first prefix is the same as in ykunkt, "she will be born". The next one is the same as in shyt', "he has rewritten it". The pronoun is the same as in khewak, "my daughter", "I have her as a daughter". The base occurs alone, for example, in waatka', "he abandoned, provided, released, gave it up"; hutka'w, "he has abandoned it"; hatka'was, "he abandons it"; hutka'was', "he has finally abandoned it".

The word tkhyatsy' means "I will divorce her, I will give her a writing". It is a strange combination of words. If we remove the middle base, the incorporated noun, we have tkhy', "I shall give it to her here". The base we left out can stand alone in, for example, kyatsh', "writing". "He divorced her" is tashakyatsy'.

Study Guide to Matthew 1:19


20. Ne', ti, n-ahs' teaya'tuwehtn nk, n n'w, huya'ken' N-aya'takwnyu' u'thta't heka't, uishtk, hawhs, hw, Juseph, s, ne yawak ne David, sn hsahtyk naashku' ne Mary ne tesn, ne' s', he niyakutya'taty he te'tsakuya'taska'a ne' ne'hu tyawehtahk N-uthwaishtukhti'.

Now then he was still thinking hard about these things, it happened the Lord's angel stood up in front of him in a dream and told him, he said, Joseph, David has you for a son, do not be afraid of taking Mary for the two of you to be together, because what has been done in her body that she is pregnant, well, it is thanks to/or the fault of the Holy Spirit.

Teaya'tuwehtn means "he is pondering it from time to time", or "he is mulling things over". The common root of kaya'ta', "doll", "image", "picture", occurs here. Other forms are: teuya'tuweht, "he has pondered it"; teaya'tuwetha', "he ponders it"; teuya'tuwehtas', "he has finally pondered it"; u'thaya'twt, "he stopped to think about it". The ending of teaya'tuwehtn (or ones similar to it) can be placed on most words. Some examples are: hyatny', "he has written things"; huyen', "he has done things"; kute'tny', "she has given birth several times".

The word nk means "this". It is sometimes shortened to n.

N'w means "how it happened". It is another form of niyaw', "how it has happened". The other forms are niyaws', "how it has finally happened"; niyws, "how it happens"; and with the ending we just saw in teaya'tuwehtn, "he is mulling things over", n'wsy', "what happened several times or in different places"; awsyny, "things happen".

The word huya'ken' means "angel". Kyate' means "the sky (is there)". Kya'ke means "in the sky". The ending of huya'ken' means "where one lives". It is found with other words too, such as, Uhiyun', "Allegany Reservation". Hanishen' means "devil", that is, "he-lives-in-the-pit".

N-aya'takwnyu' or ne Haya'takwnyu' means "the Lord". Kantakwnyu' is the "capital city, the main town". Eya'takwniyu'he't means "he will become the most important person". This last word uses an ending we saw in ta'teunti'he', "they had not gotten married".

The word u'thta't means "he stood up, it caused him to be standing". We have seen almost all of its parts earlier. It begins just as u'thaya'twt, "he stopped to think about it". The ending is the same as that in wa'uwyu't, "it caused it to be good". The t in the middle means the same as the t at the end of skt, "one". Other forms are teata'tha', "he stands up"; teuta't, "he has stood up"; and teuta'tas', "he has finally stood up".

The word heka't means "in front of him". It is an unusual shortened form. Other forms of it are: heakatha', "he points it that way"; heatkatha', "he faces that way"; heukaht, "he has pointed it that way"; heukahtas', "he finally pointed it that way"; hwaakaht', "he pointed it that way".

Uishtk means "in a dream". Other forms are: uishta', "dream"; yeishtihss, "people are trying to guess a dream"; uishtyu's, "good dreams".

Hawhs means "he has said to him". The same word more simply is hw, "he has said it". Other forms of hawhs are: hhse, "he says it to him"; was, "he said it to him"; haws', "he has finally said it". There is a form we have not yet seen, one that is increasingly used in modern Mingo speech, and that is the Past. We can form it from hw thus: hawn', "he used to say it".

The particle s means "you" in any number (singular, dual or plural).

The expression sn hsahtyk means "don't be afraid", or "don't frighten it". Sn means "don't" when followed by the command form with the Future prefix at the beginning. Other forms of the word are: hahtyhkwa', "he is frightening it"; huhtyhkwa', "it is frightening him"; huhtyhk, "he has frightened it".

The word naashku' means "how you might take her". The prefix is familiar from naayakunkt, "how she might be born". The pronoun is familiar from shewak, "your daughter". The base occurs elsewhere, for example, in kku', "I'll pick it"; waaku', "he picked it"; hakwas, "he's picking it"; hkw, "he has picked it"; hukwas', "he finally picked it".

The word tesn means "the two of you together". The prefix relates to double things as is familiar from tetyuhs', "starting again from there"; and even teaya'tuwehtn, "he is mulling things over". The pronoun means "both of you", and is familiar from tesnyatnt', "(you and) your brother", which also has the same prefix. The base is familiar from ta'teunti'he', "they have not come together". Other forms are tehn, "you and I together"; teyakn, "he or she and I together"; tekn, "both women"; tn, "both of them"; nitw, "all of us together"; niykw, "all of us together but you"; nisw, "all of you together"; nin, "all of them together"; niwn, "the women all together".

The word s' means "since" or "because".

The word niyakutya'taty means "what has been done to her body". The pronoun is familiar from naayakunkt, "how she might be born". Both bases are also familiar: kaya'ta', "picture, image, body"; and huy, "he has done it".

The word tyawehtahk means "it has caused to come". The prefix is the same as in tyuhs', "beginning from". The pronoun is the same one as well, but in a slightly different form. The ending is one occurring for example in uwiyustahk, "cosmetics, it is used to make beautiful". The base is used in tisht, "you have come from there"; hwat, "he went there".

From now on, each new word will be given in the seven basic forms in which it occurs. It will be translated only in the form in which it occurs in the Bible text. If the word in the Bible text is one of the basic forms, it will be referred to in the list as cit. If a form does not occur, its place will be taken by the sign -. The first person I is used with the examples if possible. For examples requiring the transitive I/you is preferred. For the Past and Continuative only the more common of the two possible forms is given.


21. Ne' n-atsn nyte't', Jesus (thsakuya'tkwas,) ehsyasta'k; ne', s', hahw' thsakuya'takwa' nkwe'ta' heky' n-utiiwane'aksh'sh'.

She is going to have a boy baby, you will call him Jesus (he saves them), because he himself will save his own people from their sins.


22. Kakwk nk ne'hu niyaw', ne n-u'kaiwaye ne' thusnye' N-awnyu', ne' hkwa huwnitkhtahk haya'tatek, n- utukstaniak, hw,

Now all this happened that it might come true what God said back then when he appeared to the prophet and said,


23. Nta ne'hu nyw, ne' ne yakkwe'ts' ahs' kuya'tawt', yene'he't: ne', khu, wte't' n-atsn; ne' khu, wyasthk, Emmanuel; ne' kt, ne tekawntny, Tetwt N-awnyu'.

Now this is going to happen, a young woman who is still in her period of seclusion will become pregnant and give birth to a boy, and they will call him Emmanuel, which means in translation We are (all of us) together with God.


24. n, nae, ne Juseph shatk huta'n', ne'hu nauynw n-uya'ken' N-aya'takwnyu' nau'nik'ts; ne' ne tks, sh wautinyk ne yu'.

Now then when Joseph got up, he had been asleep, he acted on what the Lord's angel had told him to do, that is, he and his wife really did just go ahead and get married.


25. Ne', khu, ne th' te'shakuyte' he niywe' shawte't' ne tyakute'thk; ne' ne Jesus hwyas.

And he did not get to know her until after the delivery of the firstborn. They called him Jesus.